Bona Fide History About Steroids Backgammon Rules Learn How To Play Backgammon Making Choices A Guide In Choosing The Best Online Why Whey Protein The Science Behind The Torment
Testosterone Propionate was the first anabolic steroid in the history about steroids in the United States. The anabolic steroid was mentioned in a U.S.weightlifting/bodybuilding magazine, in a letter to the editor of Strength and Health magazine in 1938. Dianabol (Methandrostenolone) was developed by Dr. John Ziegler with the help of Ciba pharmaceutical company, and was first marketed in the United States in 1956. Dianabol was approved for use in the United States by the federal Food and Drug Administration in 1958.
According to the later 20th Century history about steroids, the US Congress began considering placing anabolic steroids under the Controlled Substances Act after Ben Johnson controversy at the Seoul Olympics in 1988. However, during deliberations the AMA (American Medical Association), DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration), FDA (Food and Drug Administration), and NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse) all opposed listing anabolic steroids as controlled substances citing the fact that use of these hormones simply doesn’t lead to the physical or psychological dependence required for scheduling under the controlled substance act.
The history about steroids further articulates that anabolic steroids were put under the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 placed anabolic steroids into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act, and Congress enacted a rigorous legislation that had higher criminal penalties for the illegal distributors of anabolic steroids and human growth hormone. According to the Controlled Substances Act, anabolic steroids are the drugs or hormonal substances that are chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promote muscle growth. Several US pharmaceutical companies, such as Ciba, Searle, Syntex and others, stopped manufacturing or marketing anabolic steroids by the early 1990s.
According to the recent history about steroids, the 1990s was the time when the market of counterfeit anabolic steroids emerged, and the drug markets were flooded with fake anabolic steroids. This resulted in the amendment of the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990. Taking effect on Jan 20, 2005, the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004 placed both anabolic steroids and prohormones on a list of controlled substances, making possession of the banned substances without a prescription a federal crime.
The board game backgammon is one of the most ancient games known to man. It is believed that early variations of the game were played in Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and Ancient Rome. Since then, the game has evolved, changed several names and spread to different parts of the world. It is currently a popular pastime all over the US, East Asia, Europe, and the Middle East.
In order to play backgammon all you need is a partner, two dice and a special backgammon board with checkers. The backgammon board is divided into two sides with each one is the mirror reflection of the other. Each side contains 12 triangles called points numbered from 1 to 24.
Points 1 to 6: Home Board or Inner Board
Points 7 to 12: Outer Board
7 point: Bar Point
13 point: Mid Point
At the starting position of the game, each player has 2 checkers on the 24 point, 3 checkers on the 8 point and 5 on the 13 and 6 point. Each player moves from his home board through the outer board towards the opponent home board.
The object of backgammon, then, is to move your checkers towards your opponent home board and remove them off the board before your opponent moves his checkers towards your home board. The speed of the progress of each move is determined by the outcome of the dice roll.
The backgammon play begins with both players tossing one die. The player whose outcome is the highest, makes the first move using both his and his opponents number. If the outcome of the dice toss is even, the players toss the dice again until an uneven outcome appears. From now on, each player tosses both dice on his turn.
After each toss of dice, you should move your checkers forward the number of steps appears on both dice. You can move either one checker the number of steps summed up by both die or move two checkers. To make it clearer: if the outcome of the dice roll is 5 and 4, you can either move one checker 9 steps forward or move one checker 5 steps forward and then move the other piece 4 steps forward
If the dice rolls a double, which means an even number on both dice, you can move double the number appears on the dice. For example, if you roll double 2, you can move 2 points four times. In that case, you can either move one checker 8 steps forward; move two checkers a total of 4 steps; move two checkers a total of 2 steps each plus a total of 4 steps; move one checker a total of 6 steps plus 2 steps; or move four checkers 2 steps.
You can move a checker to a point where there is another one of your checkers or no more than one checker of your opponent, called blot. When you hit a blot, it is moved to the middle of the board to the part divided between the home board and the outer boards, called the bar.
The checkers placed on the bar are kept out of play until the bar can be entered by a dice roll in the opponent’s home boards. For example, if you roll 2, you can enter a checker to the 23 point and enter the opponents home board and re enter the bar checkers into the game. You cannot move the other checkers unless your entire bar checkers are at your opponents home board.
By the time your checkers are in your home board, you must remove the checkers from the board, to bear off, using a roll of dice. For example, if you roll 1, you can bear off one checker from the 1 point; if you roll 2, you can move a checker form the 2 point, and so on.
If your opponent has not borne off any checkers while you have borne off 15 checkers, you win the gammon. If your opponent has not borne off any checkers and still some of his checkers are placed on the bar, while you have borne off 15 checkers, then you win the backgammon.
There are more than a hundred online drugstores that are currently operating within the internet right now. The large number of competitors provide a wider selection of sites to choose from. However, this can also cause confusion and further difficulty in making final decisions among the buyers. Taking the point of view of an ordinary client who is looking for the best site for an online drugstore, there are just some important things that will often be noted.
Reliability – A site’s reliability can be determined, first and foremost, from the feedback of its clients. No matter how a company proclaims their being reliable, this will never be recognized as true until a number of their clients have already verified it. Also, recognitions awarded by acclaimed organizations or societies can further establish a company’s reliability.
Quality – This certain characteristic pertains to both the products and services being offered. By word of mouth, some products or services are already known to be of high quality. Others, however, make their claims through advertisements. Regardless of who or what is proclaiming anything, no matter how high or how great that may be, in the end all that matters is if the product or service speaks for itself. Quality is something that is constant, thus, this can be determined easily simply by experiencing or knowing the product or service being offered.
Affordability – Obviously, this is one guideline that is really quiet easy to understand. The more affordable a product is, the better. However, a certain level of caution should be taken into account in making sure that the products’ quality is not compromised by the low pricing.
Convenience of Use – This mainly pertains to the website of the company itself. Though rarely mentioned as being of importance, the fact that a website’s features can easily be used or understood can sometimes greatly influence some people’s preferences. Sometimes, no matter how good the prices or quality of some products may be, if the site is difficult, complicated, and confusing to use, the client can automatically lose interest of it all. This must be the reason why a great value of time and effort is sometimes invested on the development of the site itself.
Other individuals may still take into account other considerations, depending on their personal prerogatives. However, in general, those mentioned earlier are the usual factors that influence the assessment of online drugstores. This, actually, will not only help the consumers who still have not made their decisions on what online drugstore to choose, but also the company owners who need to further develop their site’s features.
With all of the recent negative press given to body supplements, it makes good sense to be cautions about using different nutritional supplements as a part of your body building efforts.
Whey protein has been lauded as a safe, natural and simple supplement. It’s use has become popular for those genuinely interested in good health through physical fitness and body building.
The importance of adequate protein levels in the body cannot be ignored. Since protein is used up when exercising, body builders must prevent muscle deterioration by maintaining protein levels. Naturally, building additional muscle mass will also require adequate levels.
Whey protein is a substance that is drawn from milk. That’s right, plain old cow’s milk. Whey is known to be a byproduct of cheese and, until the recent discovery of its health qualities, was discarded. In fact, scientists now know that what was once considered junk is actually rich in the amino acids which help build muscles and promotes good health.
As we know, protein is found in other basic foods such as meat, vegetables and grains. But, thanks to the research that has been done, we now know that whey protein is accepted by the body better. As a result body builders and other athletes can usually expect better results from whey protein than from other sources of protein.
This high quality and natural product is also useful for other people who may be on special diets, whether they are for weight loss, food allergies, or even for diabetics. Remember, high quality protein is essential for optimum health…not just for body building. Use of whey protein can help others heal quicker and recover from illness quicker.
As always, be sure to check with your health professional before implementing whey protein or making any other changes in your diet or routines. Like anything else, too much of a good thing can be harmful, so be sure to use it in moderation.
There is a rarely mentioned, supposedly nearly-extinct sect of Buddhism that believes in the words “perfection through pain.” The philosophy is not one most people would be keen to adapt, but it does take into account something that most people don’t want to acknowledge. Pain is a part of life and it is not going to go away until life goes away. Most people, of course, are capable of enduring pain. The natural pain threshold and pain tolerance of people may differ from person to person, but old lore has always said that men had a lower tolerance for suffering and torment than women did. Most of these same stories point to childbirth as the primary evidence for this age-old hypothesis, though recent discoveries are starting to reveal that the opposite is true.
According to research conducted by the University of Washington, depending on the form of stimuli, men actually have a higher pain tolerance than women. The research went to great lengths to remove any preconceived cultural and social notions about pain and the ability to handle it. The point was to find a biological basis for some of the most commonly held ideas about the nature of pain and whether gender has an appreciable effect on pain. It is one of many studies focused on the nature and biology of pain, which is understandable when one considers just how little people know about it. Up until the 1960s, for example, the medical community was completely unaware that the brain can rewire the nervous system to respond to certain painful stimuli. That dispelled the long-held belief that the stimuli-nerve-reaction sequence of pain signals was set in stone.
The study published results that point to the possibility of men and women’s bodies having different methods for processing and dealing with pain. There was also evidence that women also had an additional biological system in place that used estrogen as a key component. In one test that was conducted, it was found that women were more likely to complain from temperature-related pain than men at lower levels. One specific test subjected people to a heated surface, with all of the women feeling the pain at a colder temperature than the men. The results were consistent with other forms of tests. However, just because women have a lower pain threshold than men does not mean that they are more likely to succumb to pain.
According to the study, succumbing to pain is just as tightly linked to psychology as it is to biology. Culture and environment are just as likely to affect how someone handles pain as genetics and body build. For example, proper physical training can often help someone endure and overcome levels of pain that most individuals would not have been able to. In others, the social norms and demands of the culture they grew up in may psychologically force them to endure, even when the body is being pushed to the limits. The researchers sometimes commented that it was difficult to separate cultural and psychological factors from the results their tests gave them in the early stages of the study.
Despite the many answers that it opened up, it also posed a number of questions. It unraveled the possibility of hormonal factors being involved in pain and pain perception. The fact that estrogen levels seemed related to some painful stimuli also prompted a number of inquiries, as the exact effects of the estrogen (whether they dulled the pain or enhanced the sensation of it) were undetermined..
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